– 2 –
information exchanges between agencies that service
ofenders and the rest of the criminal justice system.
Develop business cases for
key technologies and common process templates for
implementing new technologies.
Big Data and Analytics Provide Opportunities and
Data and analytics are already playing a role in predictive
policing (pinpointing people, places, and times at increased
risk for crimes), as well as in risk-based bail setting and
sentencing. Yet potential users lack awareness of existing
training opportunities, references, and other resources on
criminal justice applications, especially those related to
cybersecurity. Te experts called for research into expanding
the availability of training and reference materials and
improving information-sharing and for pilot projects that
would integrate data, analytics, and IT into community-
One priority is the pressing need for improved situa-
tional-awareness displays to identify, communicate, and
respond quickly to threats; the technology for providing
these displays is rapidly emerging, so improving them is
amatter of leveraging that technology. Another priority is for
the federal government to support crime-analysis capabilities
for state and local agencies; the CJTFG developed awhite
paper on how such support might work (an appendix to the
Conduct research to improve how
criminal justice technology information is made available
to both practitioners and researchers.
Ensuring Security and Privacy and Protecting Civil
Rights Present Additional Challenges
Despite increasing pressure to employ cybersecurity and
protect the public’s privacy and civil rights when using
the new big data, analytics, and surveillance technologies,
guidelines remain inconsistent, legal precedent is often
lacking (resulting in security and privacy concerns), and
the public’s expectations, shaped by television shows and
advertising, often fail to be met. On top of those issues
is the fact that greater encryption of electronic devices is
increasingly hampering law enforcement agencies from
obtaining needed evidence (“going dark”).
Integrate security, privacy, and civil-
rights protections into the common business process (from
Recommendation1) for adapting new technologies.
Educate the public on how criminal
justice technologies work (or do not work) in the real world.
Collect data on the extent and
severity of the going-dark problem.
Getting to True Community-Wide Integration
To realize the true benefts of emerging technologies,
agencies must integrate information on a national scale, and
managing growing foods of digital evidence is a key part
of this imperative and a rapidly emerging trend. However,
small, resource-poor agencies lack the needed capabilities.
Organizational cultures can resist information-sharing.
Further, some brands of record-management and other
ITsystems that criminal justice systems use frequently
do not support data interoperability and sometimes even
exclude information-sharing in their licensing provisions; the
CJTFG cosponsored a resolution to require making record-
management system data exportable for sharing with other
Research changing cultures to
support information-sharing and safeguarding.
Develop regional models for
Improving Safety and Community Relations
Agencies face conficting pressures to minimize use of force
while cracking down on violence and terrorism. Missteps
can quickly afect police–community relations and alienate
groups of people from each other. Body-worn cameras
are a promising tool for accountability of both police and
the public; the experts suggested examining their use for
investigative purposes as well. CJTFG experts also expressed
astrong need for less-lethal weapons capable of subduing and
restraining violent attackers, in order to provide alternatives
to lethal force or grappling.1
Identify practices and technologies
that can both reduce crime and improve community
Explore international exchanges on
using cameras for investigative and accountability purposes.
Develop new immobilization and
restraint devices to provide alternatives to lethal uses of force.
New Technologies and New Challenges
Implementing new technologies can have both unintended
consequences and major, sometimes unanticipated, benefts.
Technological developments often outpace associated devel-Less-lethal
has a specifc meaning in law enforcement and refers to the fact
that the use of less-lethal weapons, such as conducted-energy weapons (tasers),
can sometimes result in death.
– 3 –
opments in law, regulations, policy, culture, and knowledge
regarding efective use. In addition, many of the technologies
are young, and costs might remain prohibitive. In the business
cases (recommendation1), including the need for security, pri-
vacy, and civil-rights protections (recommendation3) can help
protect against unintended drawbacks, although care must be
taken to avoid stifing the emergence of unanticipated benefts.
Two emerging technologies appear worth following. Te
frst is rapid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing coupled
with use of DNA to create profles, and the second is technol-
ogies to detect guns, knives, and other weapons at a distance.
Assess the potential of remote
Going forward, the initial priorities are to establish the busi-
ness cases for the new technologies; develop the work pro-
cesses needed to implement them; and integrate them with
the core security, privacy, and civil-rights protections needed
for successful implementation. Better ways of informing and
educating practitioners and technologists will then help get
the word out about why and how to use the new technologies.
Themes, Trends, and Ways Ahead
Lack of business cases
and processes for new
Lack of core business cases and other key reference material
for new technologies
Need to defne and disseminate the value of fusion centers
Lack of established business processes for operationalizing
Develop business cases for key technologies.
The CJTFG cosponsored a resolution specifying data
exchanges to providers of services to offenders.
Develop common business processes for
operationalizing key technologies.
Emergence of big data,
analytics, and challenges of
Lack of awareness of existing training and reference material
on criminal justice technologies
Emergence of analytics and enabling big data
Emergence of situational-awareness displays, enabling
devices, and data streams
Increasing pressures to investigate cybercrime
Need to advance from small-scale information-sharing to
Conduct research and experimentation on improving
how technology resource materials are made
available to both practitioners and researchers.
Through site visits and interviews, learn from
agencies how they are using emerging data
The CJTFG recommended that the Bureau of Justice
Assistance directly sponsor a learning tour.
Develop a federally sponsored crime-analysis
The CJTFG authored a white paper on this topic.
Security, privacy, and civil-
Increasing pressure to have cybersecurity protections
Increasing pressure to address issues that consistently affect
agencies’ use of new surveillance technologies
Lack of legal foundations and case law for new surveillance
Going dark: unbreakable commercial encryption hampering
Incorporate security, privacy, and civil-rights
protections throughout the previously recommended
common business processes.
Develop materials to educate the public on how
criminal justice technologies work (or do not work) in
the real world.
Collect hard data on the extent of the going-dark
problem and investigate work-arounds.
Getting to true feld-wide
Need for integration to enable new models of criminal justice
across the enterprise
Reality of “have and have-not” agencies being a barrier to
shared criminal-justice capabilities
Need to support to digital evidence management on a massive
Research methods to change cultures to support
information-sharing and safeguarding.
Require the exportability of core criminal-justice
The CJTFG cosponsored a resolution on this topic.
Develop regional models for information-sharing
Improving safety and
Increasing pressure to move toward guardianship, with
competing pressure to crack down on violence and terrorism
Increasing pressure for law enforcement to focus on
Need to support felding of body-worn cameras on a large
Need for less-lethal weapons to reduce the number of lethal
Identify combinations of practices and technologies
that offer the greatest potential in reducing crime and
improving community relations.
Facilitate exchanges between the United States and
the United Kingdom on lessons learned on using
cameras for both investigative and accountability
Develop new immobilization and restraint
New technologies and new
Possibility of both unintended consequences and unanticipated
Emergence of touch and rapid-DNA systemsb
Emergence of remote weapon-detection capabilities
Have the core business cases and processes include
risk-assessment elements to mitigate unanticipated
Assess the potential of remote weapon-detection
a This theme is part of an overall narrative that IT opportunities are being hampered by business process obstacles and challenges in ensuring security and civil liberties.
b Touch DNA systems can type DNA with very small samples, such as skin cells that an offender leaves behind after touching an object at a crime scene.
– 4 –
NOTE: These are the positions the members held when they served on the CJTFG.
This brief describes work done in RAND Justice Policy and documented in
Addressing Emerging Trends to Support the Future of Criminal Justice: Find-
ings of the Criminal Justice Technology Forecasting Group
, by JohnS. Hollywood, Dulani Woods, Andrew Lauland, BrianA. Jackson, and Richard
Silberglitt, RR-1987-BJA, 2018 (available at www.rand.org/t/RR1987). To view this brief online, visit www.rand.org/t/RB9996. The RAND Corporation is a
research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier
and more prosperous. RAND is nonproft, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. RAND’s publications do not necessarily refect the opinions of
its research clients and sponsors. R is a registered trademark.
Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights: This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intel-
lectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited. Permission is given to duplicate this
document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of
our research documents for commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.html.
– 4 –
Criminal Justice Technology Forecasting Group
Peggy Bell, Executive Director, Delaware Criminal Jus-
tice Information System
Jean Bousquet, Director and Chief Information Ofcer,
Wisconsin State Courts Ofce
Ronald Brothers, Chief Information Ofcer, Information
Technology and Communications Division, Maryland
Department of Transportation
Scott Came, Executive Director, SEARCH Group
Tomas Clarke, Vice President, Research and
Technology Services, National Center for State Courts
Mitch Cunningham, Deputy Chief, Investigative
Bureau, Wilmington (N.C.) Police Department
Phillip Gof, President, Center for Policing Equity,
JohnJay College of Criminal Justice
Maggie Goodrich, Chief Information Ofcer,
LosAngeles Police Department
John Hollywood, Ph.D., Director, Information and
Geospatial Technologies Center of Excellence, National
Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center
Jonathan Lewin, Commander and Managing Deputy
Director, Chicago Ofce of Emergency Management
and Communications, Chicago Police Department
Cherie Lingelbach, Policy and Implementation Manager,
juvenile justice information system, Oregon Youth
Mike Overton, Chief, Information Services Division,
Nebraska Crime Commission
Jerry Ratclife, Ph.D., Director, Center for Security and
Crime Science, Department of Criminal Justice, Temple
David Roberts, Senior Program Manager, programs,
International Association of Chiefs of Police
Anne Roest, Commissioner, New York City Department
of Information Technology and Telecommunications
Donna Roy, Executive Director, Information Sharing
Environment Ofce, U.S. Department of Homeland
Cynthia Rudin, Associate Professor, Sloan School of
Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Pam Scanlon, Executive Director, Automated Regional
Justice Information System
Teresa Takai, Chief Information Ofcer, U.S.
Department of Defense
Sean Takkar, Executive Director, Connecticut Criminal
Justice Information System Governing Board
Joseph Wassel, U.S. Department of Defense
Harlan Yu, Principal, Upturn.
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